Image segmentation is (one of) the (few) concept(s) on the border between Image (pre)processing (Image->Image) and Image analysis (Image->Data).



There are many methods in bio-imaging that can be parametrized. This gives more flexibility
to the user as long as tools provide easy support for tuning parameters. On the other hand, the
datasets of interest constantly grow which creates the need to process them in bulk. Again,
this requires proper tool support, if biologist is going to be able to organize such bulk
processing in an ad-hoc manner without the help of a programmer. Finally, new image
analysis algorithms are being constantly created and updated. Yet, lots of work is necessary to
extend a prototype implementation into product for the users. Therefore, there is a growing
need for software with a graphical user interface (GUI) that makes the process of image
analysis easier to perform and at the same time allows for high throughput analysis of raw
data using batch processing and novel algorithms. Main program in this area are written in
Java, but Python grow in bioinformatics and will be nice to allow easy wrap algorithm written
in this language.
Here we present PartSeg, a comprehensive software package implementing several image
processing algorithms that can be used for analysis of microscopic 3D images. Its user
interface has been crafted to speed up workflow of processing datasets in bulk and to allow
for easy modification of algorithm’s parameters. In PartSeg we also include the first public
implementation of Multi-scale Opening algorithm descibed in [1]. PartSeg allows for
segmentation in 3D based on finding connected components. The segmentation results can be
corrected manually to adjust for high noise in the data. Then, it is possible to calculate some
standard statistics like volume, mass, diameter and their user-defined combinations for the
results of the segmentation. Finally, it is possible to superimpose segmented structures using
weighted PCA method. Conclusions: PartSeg is a comprehensive and flexible software
dedicated to help biologists in processing, segmentation, visualization and the analysis of the
large microscopic 3D image data. PartSeg provides well established algorithms in an easy-touse,
intuitive, user-friendly toolbox without sacrificing their power and flexibility.


Examples include Chromosome territory analysis.




AssayScope is an intuitive application dedicated to large scale image processing and data analysis. It is meant for histology, cell culture (2D, 3D, 2D+t) and phenotypic analysis. 

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​The Allen Cell Structure Segmenter


The Allen Cell Structure Segmenter is a Python-based open source toolkit developed at the Allen Institute for Cell Science for 3D segmentation of intracellular structures in fluorescence microscope images.

It consists of two complementary elements:

  1. Classic image segmentation workflows for 20 distinct intracellular structure localization patterns. A visual “lookup table” is outlining the modular algorithmic steps for each segmentation workflow. This provides an intuitive guide for selection or construction of new segmentation workflows for a user’s particular segmentation task. 
  2. Human-in-the-loop iterative deep learning segmentation workflow trained on ground truth manually curated data from the images segmented with the segmentation workflow. Importantly, this module was not released yet.


The Allen Cell Structure Segmenter Overview



Labkit is an open-source tool to segment truly large image data using sparse training data. It has an intuitive and responsive user interface based on Big Data Viewer, allowing users to conveniently browse and annotate even terabyte sized image volumes.

Update site: Labkit

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ZEN Intellesis Trainable Segmentation


Perform Advanced Image Segmentation and Processing across Microscopy Methods

Overcome the bottleneck of segmenting your Materials Science images and use ZEISS ZEN Intellesis, a module of the digital imaging software ZEISS ZEN.
Independent of the microscope you used to acquire your image data, the algorithm of ZEN Intellesis will provide you with a model for automated segmentation after training. Reuse the model on the same kind of data and beneft from consistent and repeatable segmentation, not influenced by the operator. 
ZEN Intellesis offers a straightforward, ease-to-use workflow that enables every microscope user to perform advanced segmentation tasks rapidly.


  • Simple User Interface for Labelling and Training
  • Integration into ZEN Measurement Framework
  • Support for Multi-dimensional Datasets
  • Use powerful machine learning algorithms for pixel-based classifcation
  • Real Multi-Channel Feature Extraction
  • Engineered Feature Set and Deep Feature Extraction on GPU
  • IP-Function for creating masks an OAD-enabled for advanced automation
  • Powered by ZEN and Python3 using Anaconda Python Distribution
  • Just label objects, train your model and segment your images – there is no need for expert image analysis skills
  • Segment any kind of image data in 2D or 3D. Use data from light, electron, ion or x-ray microscopy, or your mobile phone
  • Speed up your segmentation task by built-in parallelization and GPU (graphics processing unit) acceleration
  • Increase tolerance to low signal-to-noise and artifact-ridden data
  • Seamless integration in ZEN framework and image analysis wizard
  • Data agnostic
  • Compatibility with 2D, 3D and up to 6D datasets
  • Export of multi-channel or labeled images
  • Exchange and sharing of models
  • GPU computing
  • Large data handling
  • Common and well-established machine learning algorithms
  • SW Trial License available



Quantitative Criterion Acquisition Network (QCA Net) performs instance segmentation of 3D fluorescence microscopic images. QCA Net consists of Nuclear Segmentation Network (NSN) that learned nuclear segmentation task and Nuclear Detection Network (NDN) that learned nuclear identification task. QCA Net performs instance segmentation of the time-series 3D fluorescence microscopic images at each time point, and the quantitative criteria for mouse development are extracted from the acquired time-series segmentation image. The detailed information on this program is described in our manuscript posted on bioRxiv.

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This note presents the design of a scalable software package named ImagePy for analysing biological images. Our contribution is concentrated on facilitating extensibility and interoperability of the software through decoupling the data model from the user interface. Especially with assistance from the Python ecosystem, this software framework makes modern computer algorithms easier to be applied in bioimage analysis.



It implements the template matching function from the OpenCV library. The java interface of OpenCV was done through the javacv library. It is quite similar as the existing template matching plugin but runs much faster and users could choose among six matching methods: 

1.Squared difference

2.Normalized squared difference


4.Normalized cross-correlation

5.Correlation coefficient

6.Normalized correlation coefficient

The detailed algorithms could be found here.

The cvMatch_Template will search a specific object (image pattern) over an image of interest by the user-specified method. 



Neuroconductor is an open-source platform for rapid testing and dissemination of reproducible computational imaging software, specialized in brain medical imaging (MRI, fMRI, DTI, etc...) but that could be used on a wider range of images. The goals of the project are to:

  • provide a centralized repository of R software dedicated to image analysis;
  • disseminate quickly software updates;
  • educate a large, diverse community of scientists using detailed tutorials and short courses;
  • ensure quality via automatic and manual quality controls; and
  • promote reproducibility of image data analysis.


Based on the programming language R, Neuroconductor starts with 68 inter-operable packages that cover multiple areas of imaging including visualization, data processing and storage, and statistical inference. Neuroconductor accepts new R package submissions, which are subject to a formal review and continuous automated testing.

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