Image enhancement is a term used to refer to an operation that increases the quality of the image, being historically more used in the context of contrast enhancement (which improves visualization for the human eye). However, image enhancement is also a very general term that refers to operations that enhance features interest in the image. An image enhancement operation moves further away from the reality, as opposed to Image reconstruction that moves closer to the reality.

Image restoration

Neural Circuit Tracer


Neural Circuit Tracer (NCTracer) is open source software for automated and manual tracing of neurites from light microscopy stacks of images. NCTracer has more than one workflow available for neuron tracing. 

"The Neural Circuit Tracer is open source software built using Java (Sun Microsystems) and Matlab (MathWorks, Inc., Natick MA). It is based on the core of ImageJ ( and the graphic user interface has been developed by using Java Swings. The software combines anumber of functionalities of ImageJ with several newly developed functions for automated and manual tracing of neurites. The Neural Circuit Tracer is designed in a way
that will allow the users to add any plug-ins developed for ImageJ. More importantly, functions written in MatLab and converted into Java with Matlab JA toolbox can also be added to the Neural Circuit Tracer." 

Example of output from Neural Circuit Tracer

Microscopy Image Browser (MIB)


Microscopy Image Browser (MIB) is a high-performance Matlab-based software package for advanced image processing, segmentation and visualization of multi-dimensional (2D-4D) light and electron microscopy datasets.

MIB is a freely available, user-friendly software for effective image processing of multidimensional datasets that improves and facilitates the full utilization of acquired data and enables quantitative analysis of morphological features. Its open-source environment enables fine tuning and possibility of adding new plug-ins to customize the program for specific needs of any research project.

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ImageJ Bandpass filter


The Fourier transform of an image produces a representation in frequency space: i.e. separated according to spatial frequency (effectively scale). The 2D amplitude map of the different spatial frequencies is symmetrical, and is commonly displayed with low spatial frequencies (large features) in the centre, highest spatial frequencies (small features) at the edges. Fourier filtering involves suppressing or enhancing features in the Fourier domain before carrying out an inverse Fourier transform to obtain a filtered real-space image. ImageJ's _Process > FFT > Bandpass Filter_ implements two common Fourier-filtering functions: 1. filtering for specific sizes of feature in an image by selecting minimum and maximum feature sizes (selecting a radial band of frequencies in Fourier space); 2. filtering out repetitive horizontal or vertical stripes by cutting out a zero-frequency stripe in the orthogonal direction in frequency space. The example image above shows the effect of filtering for 2 feature size ranges: 0-8 pixels, and 8-256 pixels; where the former appears "flattened" or washed-out, and the latter very blurred. The small images displayed to the lower-right of each filtered image correspond to the mask applied to the Fourier transform. Such filtering can be useful prior to global thresholding, for noise suppression, etc.

ImageJ bandpass screenshot

Histogram Equalization


Enhances the global contrast by equalizing the histogram. This plugin transforms pixel intensities so that they are uniformly distributed over the gray-scale range. It operates on the selected channel of each image of a sequence. This operation is also called "histogram flattening".

mcib3d library


Plugins for 3D Image processing and Analyisis in ImageJ. Previously (?) known as [3D ImageJ Suite](

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Image Normalizer (KNIME)

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Image Convolution (EBImage)

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